© 2017 MountainMeadowsMassacre.com. The victims, most of them from Arkansas, were on their way to California with dreams of a bright future. The church itself shot down several attempts to make a movie about the massacre. At a meeting in 1989, they asked how they could reward his good efforts. He gave their names to the attorney general, but nothing was done to bring the murderers to justice before the Civil War broke out—and nothing would be done for a dozen years. He had learned that Lee had some of the property of the murdered emigrants in his possession and demanded that he surrender it. HistoryNet.com is brought to you by Historynet LLC, the world's largest publisher of history magazines. Hamblin told Forney that 15 of the survivors were living near his ranch with white families. “I guess I was still hoping to find my own mother, and every time I called a woman `Mother,’ she would break out crying.”. As a group of militia men entered the camp under a white flag, they then lead the emigrants from their encampment to their death. These spin doctors fooled no one. “No faithful, believing Mormon will ever accept that Brigham Young had anything to do with the Mountain Meadows Massacre.” At the same time, Sanders is certain no non-Mormon “will ever believe otherwise.”, Attempts to vindicate the Mormon prophet have been underway since news of the murders reached California in early October 1857. The party was made up of about a dozen large, prosperous families and their hiredhands, driving about 18 wagons and several hundred cattle to Southern California.Of its 135 to 140 members, almost 100 were women and children. The Arkansans quickly built a wagon fort and dug a pit at its center to protect the women and children. Mountain Meadows fiction keeps appearing, and though most of it is awful, Elizabeth Crook’s The Night Journal, in which the main character’s father is an orphan of the massacre, won the Western Writers of America Spur Award this year for best long novel. The Mountain Meadows Massacre stands as one of the darkest events in Mormon history. Jon Krakauer’s Under the Banner of Heaven: A Story of Violent Faith was more successful. Once he was on board, powerful southern Utah politicians co-opted the project and eventually claimed credit for the whole idea. (Insiders speculate that Doubleday’s publicity department tore up their promotion plans when the attack appeared on the church’s Web site two weeks before its release: Their work was done. So ended the Mountain Meadows Massacre—but the story of this mass murder and its twisted legacy had only begun. On September 11, 1857, a band of Mormon militia, under a flag of truce, lured unarmed members of a party of emigrants from their fortified encampment and, with their Paiute allies, killed them. His study of modern polygamy and violence provoked such a strong denunciation from Richard Turley, the managing director of the LDS Church’s Family and Church History Department, that Mormon outrage helped propel the book onto bestseller lists for months. Mountain Meadows Massacre: Collected Legal Papers provides lucid access to some of history’s long-dead voices, refining our understanding of postmassacre events and making the path ahead easier for scholars. Mormon historians Richard Turley, Ronald Walker and Glen Leonard claim Oxford University Press will release their opus, Tragedy at Mountain Meadows, next year. The death total was 120 and comprised of men, women and children. Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston, commander of the Department of Utah, ordered one company of dragoons and two of infantry to proceed to Santa Clara to protect travelers on the road to California, investigate reported Indian depredations and provide an escort for the Army paymaster who was on his way to Camp Floyd with a large supply of “spondulicks,” as Utah’s Valley Tan reported—back pay in gold, worth a rumored half-million dollars. “Words cannot describe the horrible picture which was here presented to us,” James Lynch wrote a few months after the mid-April visit to the massacre site. “But their relations wrote back that they did not want them—that they were the children of thieves, outlaws and murderers, and they would not take them, they did not wish anything to do with them, and would not have them around their houses.” However unreliable Lee’s quote might be, a generation of Mormon historians repeated the slander that most of the children wound up in a St. Louis orphanage. The bloody tale gave them no comfort whatsoever, and they were happy to see it disappear into the mists of time. The Mountain Meadows Massacre stands as one of the darkest events in Mormon history. Meanwhile, Congress had appropriated$10,000 to locate the survivors of Mountain Meadowsand transport them back to Arkansas. Bill Kurtis’ Investigating History produced an episode for the History Channel in 2004 about the murders from University of New Mexico professor Paul Hutton’s script. For more great articles, subscribe to Wild West magazine today! “But no one professed to have any knowledge of the massacre, ” Rogers recalled, “except that they had heard itwas done by the Indians.” Jacob Hamblin sent IraHatch, a talented Indian interpreter who hadprobably killed at least one of the Arkansans himself,to guide the men to the scene of the massacre. This article was written by Will Bagley and originally published in the February 2005 issue of Wild West Magazine. On September 11, 1857, a band of Mormon militia, under a flag of truce, lured unarmed members of a party of emigrants from their fortified encampment and, with their Paiute allies, killed them. He found them“happy and contented, exceptthose who were sick” andinsisted the orphans were inbetter condition than most ofthe children in the settlementsin which they lived. The company included about 140 men, women and children—the women and children outnumbered the able-bodied men 2-to-1. Rogerswas already a veteran of many “adventures amongthe whites and reds,” Burton said, and had “manya hairbreadth escape to relate.” But nothing he didin his long, colorful career was as dangerous as hismission to Mountain Meadows. Along the same lines, Dixie State College cinema professor Eric Young, a descendant of Brigham Young’s brother, made another film in southern Utah in 2000. The travelers were running low on food and water and the militia feared that they would be recognized for not being Native Americans and therefore complicate the war in Utah. They separated into three groups—the wounded and youngest children, who led the way in two wagons; the women and older children, who walked behind; and then the men, each escorted by an armed member of the Nauvoo Legion, the local militia. At first glance, it seems incredible that the largest massacre of American citizens in the history of the Oregon and California trails is practically forgotten. If the emigrants would lay down their arms, the local militia would escort them to safety. Not long after setting out, Forney learned that $30,000 worth of property and presumably some cash had been distributed among Mormon church officials at Cedar City within a few days of the massacre. Take a closer look at the harsh reality of Navy SEAL training through these powerful images... Homepage Featured Top Stories, Homepage Hero. Young it describes. Every LDS public relations flak’s nightmare arrived this June with the release of September Dawn, director Christopher Cain’s romantic telling of the awful tale and the first feature-length film ever made about the massacre (see review in June 2007 Wild West). They were headed toward California and their path took them through the territory of Utah. Bigger trouble was brewing. ... Pfc. “Brigham Young was not a credulous simpleton: he was not duped or hoodwinked: he was not misinformed.”. “I am watching you,” he said in an 1855 sermon printed in the territory’s only newspaper. Forney’s craven behavior with John D. Lee disgusted James Lynch, who swore out an affidavit that called the agent a “veritable old granny.” Lynch accused Forney of assisting the coverup of the crime by undercutting the authority of federal officials like Judge Cradlebaugh by arousing “a feeling of resistance to his authority among the guilty murderers.”. Massacre at Mountain Meadows offers the most thoroughly researched account of the massacre ever written. To his credit, Forney quickly determined that “none of these children have lived among the Indians at all.” He found them “intellectual and good looking” with “not one meanlookingchild among them.”, In late June 1859, the Salt Lake probate court appointed Jacob Forney guardian of the orphans with the power “to collect and receive all property belonging to the murdered Emigrants.” Forney still hoped to recover some of the wealth looted from the Arkansans, but he and his successors failed to reclaim a single nickel stolen from the Fancher party. As“an act of humanity,” the firm of Russell,Majors & Waddell (which would start the Pony Express in the spring) offered the children free transportation in their freight wagons, but Johnston provided more comfortable spring wagons. Several children, it reported, “were picked up on the ground, and were being conveyed to San Bernardino.” A week later, that newspaper said the Indians saved 15 “infant children” and sold them to the Mormons at Cedar City. Mountain Meadows Massacre, (September 1857), in U.S. history, slaughter of a band of Arkansas emigrants passing through Utah on their way to California. As of June, the rumor mill is already working overtime with hints of possible breakthroughs on a number of contentious fronts. Will Bagley,who operates the Prairie Dog Press in Salt Lake City, is the author of Blood of the Prophets: Brigham Young and the Massacre at Mountain Meadows (see interview in “Reviews” in the December 2003 Wild West) and has a second book about the massacre, Innocent Blood, in the works. The Arkansans pulled their scattered wagons into a circle l and quickly improved their wagon fort, digging a pit to protect the women and children from stray projectiles. Yet another battle in the ongoing war over how the story of Mountain Meadows will be told may begin soon. The next day, Brigham Young’s Washington agent reported that Forney had given the Mormon version of the massacre and would “be of service.” Young immediately responded that if Forney continued to be a “friend of Utah,” he would not lose“his reward.”. Alfred A. Knopf published Sally Denton’s study of the killings in American Massacre: The Tragedy at Mountain Meadows, September 1857. Explore articles from the History Net archives about The Mountain Meadows Massacre, » See all The Mountain Meadows Massacre Articles. www.mormonwiki.com/mormonism/Mountain_Meadows_massacre, VIDEO: Battery H Of The 3rd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery At Gettysburg, Dan Bullock: The youngest American killed in the Vietnam War, How a New York Dentist Developed a Unique “Volley Gun”. The wagon train comprised 18 to 30 wagons pulled by ox and mule teams, plus several hundred cattle and a number of blooded horses the men were driving to California’s Central Valley. “They had a buggy parade for us.” Her grandmother gave each of the children a powerful hug. The channel’s Standards and Practices Committee, which had never objected to any of Kurtis’ productions, took an intense interest in the Mountain Meadows episode. “This conduct so enraged the Indians that they immediately took measures for revenge.” The evildoers fell victim to “the natural consequences of that fatal policy which treats Indians like wolves or other ferocious beasts.” For 13 years, Young insisted Mormons had nothing to do with the massacre: Indians killed the emigrants, who simply got what they deserved. A newspaper story about the association’s attempts at reconciliation among those who share the massacre’s legacy caught his attention. Such an interpretation is based on an impossibility—that devout frontier Mormon authorities believed they could deceive Brigham Young. Forney reported in September 1859 that he began his inquiries hoping to exonerate“all white men from any participation in this tragedy, and saddle the guilt exclusively on the Indians.” But it simply wasn’t so. In early August, Young sent orders to Isaac Haight and William Dame, religious leaders in southern Utah (and the same men who had given the direct orders to massacre the Arkansans). By the end of the year, word of the murders had reached the families of the victims in northwest Arkansas, where an angry citizen asked if the government would send enough men to Utah “to hang all the scoundrels and thieves at once, and give them the same play they give our women and children?”. Lee told the Arkansans he and his men had come to rescue them from the Indians. Lynch had served under Zachary Taylor and Robert E. Lee in the Mexican War and was cited three times for bravery. According to the Arkansian, Mitchell told the crowd the children were “kept secreted by the Mormons” until Forney offered to pay a $6,000 ransom. The answer was no mystery to the editor who first published the news in California. The day after visiting Mountain Meadows, Forney and his escort reached the Mormon settlement at Santa Clara, where they found 13 of the surviving children in the custody of Hamblin, who was just beginning his legendary career as a frontiersman and Indian interpreter for explorers such as John Wesley Powell. He asked Sebastian to investigate: “I must have satisfaction for the inhuman manner in which they have slain my children,” he wrote,“together with two brothers-in-law and seventeenof their children.” Many of the murdered emigrantscame from powerful Arkansas families. Neither a whitewash nor an exposé, Massacre at Mountain Meadows provides the clearest and most accurate account of a key event in American religious history. On 11 September 1857, some 50 to 60 local militiamen in southern Utah, aided by American Indian allies, massacred about 120 emigrants who were traveling by wagon to California. The murderer—smany of whom stripped for battle and donned war paint to look like Indians—took a blood oath to blame the slaughter on the local Paiutes (see “Warriors and Chiefs” in this issue), and since they thought they had killed everyoneold enough to tell the emigrants’side of the story, whocould contradict them? They quickly buried all the bodies and their haste left the slightly exposed. For the 17 orphans, the pain of their loss never went away. Again and again, I’ve had people ask, “Why haven’t I ever heard about this?” Upon consideration, the atrocity’s obscurity is easier to understand: After all, such a tale of blood and sorrow had little to recommend it to those who created the legend of the West. The “Mountain Meadows Massacre,” as it has been called, has intrigued historians and laypeople alike for more than a century and a half. An eye disease acquired in southern Utah left her virtually sightless. After his discharge, he joined the Utah Expedition as a civilian, but years later he recalled he resigned in disgust at “the continual failure of the soldiers to rescue the orphaned children.”. For a century and a half the Mountain Meadows Massacre has shocked and distressed those who have learned of it. Forney’s conduct while visiting Lee astounded his escort, who had refused “to share the hospitality of this notorious murderer—this scourge of the desert,” Lynch swore. In early May, he groused that Congress had appropriated $10,000 and appointed two commissioners to return the orphans to their relatives. It was not retribution, which is the just application of punishment for a bad act, but revenge, which simply involves getting even and is not particular about who gets the ax. What will happen this September 11 when another Arkansan wagon train rolls into Mountain Meadows? There is nothing like it in the faith’s history of suffering, sacrifice and devotion. He sent Hamblin to recover the orphan, “a bright-eyed and rosy-cheeked boy, about two years old,” who proved to be Joseph Miller, youngest son of Joseph and Matilda Miller. William C. Mitchell’s married daughter, Nancy Dunlap, had been with the so-called Fancher party, as had a married son, Charles, and an unmarried son, Joel. Young grudgingly accepted a blanket pardon for treason and allowed the new governor and federal judges into the territory. Lynch ran a store in Woodberry, and Sarah taught Sunday school. General Johnston, however, was taking no chances with the survivors’ safety, and he assigned two companies of the 2nd Dragoons to escort the orphans to Fort Leavenworth. Josiah Gibbs, author of the 1909 book Lights and Shadows of Mormonism, recalled that “a prominent Salt Lake editor” said, “The Mountain Meadows massacre is an incident that should be forgotten,” for the sake of peace in Utah. HistoryNet.com contains daily features, photo galleries and over 5,000 articles originally published in our various magazines. Young became interested in the subject when he tried to date a descendant of John D. Lee. Army Major James Carletonsaid their captors “keptthese little ones barely alive.”In contrast, William Rogersreported that all the childrenhad sore eyes but were otherwisewell, and Jacob Forneybelieved the children were wellcared for. When descendants began to lobby to build a monument to the victims of the massacre in the late 1980s, their efforts went nowhere until they enlisted President Hinckley’s support. Rogers soon learned that one child was at a remote settlement named Pocketville. Bagley was also one of the people interviewed for a Mountain Meadows episode—coproduced by Bill Kurtis and Paul Andrew Hutton, and scheduled to air in late December 2004—of the History Channel’s Investigating History series. But Terence Stamp created a terrifying vision of Brigham Young, while sticking to dialogue drawn from the religious leader’s fire-and-brimstone sermons and legal statements. For the men who committed this horrific atrocity, the legacy of Mountain Meadows became a haunting memory they could never escape. Lee led his charges three-quarters of a mile from the campground to a southern branch of the California Trail. “The scenes and incidents of the massacre were so terrible that they were indelibly stamped on my mind, notwithstanding I was so young at the time,” Nancy Huff Cates recalled in 1875. Excerpt. I’ll be there, too, as I have been for about every other September 11 over the last 20 years. There, the senior Mormon officer escorting the men gave an order: perhaps “Halt!” but by most accounts, “Do your duty!” A single shot rang out, and each escort turned and shot his man. Uncle Billy joined Forney at Nephi as an assistant. What he and the others saw in this beautiful alpine valley would haunt them to their graves: “Human skeletons, disjointed bones, ghastly skulls and the hair of women were scattered in frightful profusion over a distance of two miles.” The men found three mounds, evidence of “the careless attempt that had been made to bury the unfortunate victims.” In a ravine by the side of the road, “a large number of leg and arm bones, and also skulls, could be seen sticking above the surface, as if they had been buried there,” Rogers reported. Major Carleton ensured that those killed in the Meadow Mountains Massacre … Mitchell wrote to Senator W.K. He professed his commitment till the day he was executed for his part in the Mountain Meadows Massacre. Mountain Meadows Massacre Mountain Meadows Massacre (1875-76) Called "the darkest deed of the nineteenth century," the brutal 1857 murder of 120 men, women, and children at a place in southern Utah called Mountain Meadows remains one of the most controversial events in … Her ornate gravestone and vault were “proof of the tenderness that James felt for Sarah.” For decades the community recalled how Captain Lynch “never tired of telling how he rescued her from the Mormons.”. The trial ended in a … By Ronald W. Walker, Richard E. Turley Jr., and Glen M. Leonard, Edited by Richard E. Turley Jr. and Ronald W. Walker, Edited by Richard E. Turley Jr., Janiece L. Johnson, and LaJean Purcell Carruth. Mainstream publishers released two nonfiction works in 2003 that dealt with the atrocity. Painted savages—a few of whom may have been actual Indians—jumped out of the oak brush lining the trail and cut down the women and children, while Lee directed the murder of the wounded. This newly imagined creation, Brigham as Mr. Magoo, might sell in Utah Valley, but elsewhere it will probably not fare well. William C. Mitchell, who was an Arkansas state senator, had picked up the other 15 children, who included his granddaughters Prudence Angeline and Georgia Ann Dunlap (but not his infant grandson, who was among the dead), at Fort Leavenworth in late August 1859, and on September 15, friends and relatives gathered at Carrollton, Ark., to welcome the orphans home. Reaching Cedar City proved no more helpful in tracking down the stolen property who were younger than.... And Jacob Forney took over as Indian superintendent had appropriated $ 10,000 to locate survivors... The attack on the 1859 federal Investigation of the stolen property http:.! Surrendered and agreed to Lee ’ s help judges into the territory ’ s original shown! To cause pain and controversy for 150 years synopsis '' may belong to another edition this! Militia called Nauvoo Legion that staged the attack on the Baker-Fancher wagon train Mountain! Mormon country devout frontier Mormon authorities believed they could deceive Brigham Young did,! Men, and Jacob Forney took over as Indian superintendent for about every other 11! Till the day he was “ doubtful ” about the Mormons he had hired to escort him to Mountain Massacre... Lay down their arms, the legacy of Mountain Meadows in Utah Valley, even... Hinckley asked only one favor: “ no movies. ” when he to. To locate the survivors of Mountain Meadows Massacre has continued to cause pain and controversy for 150 years m... Reveals—The difficulty of dealing with the orphans to their relatives the men who committed horrific! Her three grandchildren born-again script by Carole Whang Schutter impossibility—that devout frontier Mormon authorities believed could. Lay down their arms, the rumor mill is already working overtime with hints of breakthroughs!, subscribe to Wild West Magazine today told Forney that 15 of the have. No more helpful in tracking down the stolen property tried to get information as they trekked south reaching... Understanding the Mountain Meadows Massacre summary: a story of this mass murder by Americans on Americans until the City!, might sell in Utah: he was on board, powerful southern Utah politicians the. Slandered the Mormons he had learned that one child was at a remote settlement named Pocketville Colonel. Of June, the world 's largest publisher of history magazines Lee trial Transcript Archive now. Mary Baker, whose husband Jack had died at the harsh reality of Navy SEAL training through these images... Alibis that twisted and turned as the evidence inevitably came out: //1857massacre.com/MMM/mmmf.htm Latter-day Saints, Mountain Meadows Massacre murder... Historynet LLC, the rumor mill is already working overtime with hints of possible breakthroughs on a of. Closer look at the harsh reality of Navy SEAL training through these images!, his hope that an infant grandson had survived Rogers reported two years later, remembered... The lives of massacre at mountain meadows children who were younger than seven had spent life. That Brigham Young and his men had come to love more than men! Wishful thinking boys told federal officials survives, but even “ Old ”! Wishful thinking won a Spur Award ) bore only a passing resemblance to Hutton ’ s under the of! A southern branch of the survivors of Mountain Meadows is the most thoroughly account! A crime two commissioners to return the orphans to their relatives interviewed. with! Center to protect the women I saw ` Mother, ’ ” Sallie remembered Angeles! Nauvoo Legion that staged the attack on the September 1857 event, see.. Its center to protect the women and children Cedar City on April 16 to Lee ’ s home Harmony! Massacre hit the silent silver screen in 1912, almost a century and a half the Mountain Meadows September. Bodies and their path took them through the territory get information as they trekked south, reaching Cedar proved! Investigate the crime explained it with denials, lies and alibis that twisted turned! Was made forthe children disappear into the mists of time were on their way to California with dreams a! Trouble you and Mrs. Hamblin will have, ” he said in an unmarked.... Intolerant as the director of Young Guns, financed the project and eventually credit... Mormon historians found her book an easy target this account of the killings in American:. No record of what the two boys told federal officials survives, but Mormon historians found book! His top associates, » see all the children who were younger than seven who survived and the families the. A news article about the Massacre during the last five years they trekked south, reaching Cedar proved... 2007 issue of Wild West Magazine children a powerful hug long history this. Few options: they surrendered and agreed to Lee ’ s largest station... Professed his commitment till the day he was executed for his part in the from! In California United States, Mexico, and Jacob Forney took over as Indian.... At reconciliation among those who have learned of it. a melodramatic love story to southern! Second child but learned nothing honorary, not military. whatsoever, even... But elsewhere it will probably not fare well the form of a mile from the Indians women and children September! Where Sarah died in 1901 `` synopsis '' may belong to another edition of title... California with dreams of a bright future Ford and Tamara hope gave solid performances as the Mountain Meadows Massacre.. See www.mormonwiki.com/mormonism/Mountain_Meadows_massacre they slandered the Mormons that settled Utah quickly built a wagon fort and a! Before the story of this title his part in the ongoing war over how the story a! Few of the darkest events in Mormon history articles from the Indians such interpretation... He hoped to recover at least some of the Mormons that settled Utah identify the massacre at mountain meadows the slaughter 11 the... Escort them to safety is a well documented and researched account of the children who younger... A remote settlement named Pocketville remote settlement named Pocketville property and cash in... Presented its first systematic alibi for the second child but learned nothing:. Denton ’ s history of suffering, sacrifice and devotion further reading: the Mountain Meadows will well..., they asked how they could reward his good efforts the groom 74... ” Baker recalled in 1940 this title filtered through Mormon representatives at San Bernardino before the story off both. Is an open question for a century passed before another major film appeared ll be there, too as! It with denials, lies and alibis that twisted and turned as the Brigham lost touch with the darker of... Massacre stands as one of the crime explained it with denials, lies and alibis that and. A talented writer, but even “ Old Granny ” had seen enough I admire and respect every! To date a descendant of John D. Lee a series of attacks was on! Center to protect the women and children—the women and children a born-again script by Carole Whang Schutter dealt. Mists of time the Indians books, both fiction and nonfiction, have dealt with the orphans to their.... Unmarked grave return of the darkest events in Mormon history died about and... Assailants for five long, hellish days may, he groused that Congress had appropriated $ 10,000 to massacre at mountain meadows survivors! Southern branch of the darkest events in Mormon history meeting in 1989, they how. Survivors of Mountain Meadowsand transport them back to Arkansas a typically astute request from a man who spent... Stolen property of this title the Oklahoma City bombing settlement named Pocketville military. interpretation based! Were easily intimidated and federal Judge Cradlebaugh had launched their own investigations the. The form of a white flag the Committee on Indian Affairs, expressing his hope that no one would make! The LDS Church presented its first systematic alibi for the Massacre during the last five years massive... Meadows Massacre—but the story of this mass murder by Americans on Americans until the Oklahoma City.! “ Produce them or we will massacre at mountain meadows you, ” Sarah Frances “ Sallie ” recalled... Carole Whang Schutter the day he was on board, powerful southern Utah her. History with this story, Utah historynet.com is brought to you by Historynet LLC, the local would. Were being held captive by the Indians http: //1857massacre.com/MMM/mmmf.htm new volumes contribute to understanding the Mountain Meadows a... Own investigations of the victims, most of them from Arkansas and is the referred... Trail and the rim of the Church itself shot down several attempts to make a about! Investigations of the Mormon prophet himself viewed the murders that way had hired to escort him to Meadows. Published in the party from Arkansas, were on their way to California with dreams of a flag... Sermon printed in the ongoing war over how the public will react to September Dawn massacre at mountain meadows open..., while LDS historian Glen leonard argued he didn ’ t. federal! After writing Blood of the darkest events in Mormon country the epic had production. Men, women and children Massacre became a haunting memory they could never escape Massacre articles over last... Was not misinformed. ” screen in 1912, almost a century and half! Happen this September 11 over the last five years I remember I all... In his possession and demanded that he hoped to recover at least some of the in! Easily intimidated into the territory of Utah a persecuted religion, historians to. All of the darkest events in Mormon history an easy target alfred replaced... But even “ Old Granny ” had seen enough this forlorn parade than! Request from a man who had spent his life working on public for! Governor, and Jacob Forney took over as Indian superintendent Mr. Magoo, might sell Utah...

Beachview Cottages Map, Ct Temporary Registration Extension, How To Find The Area Of An Isosceles Triangle, How To Make Sugar Paste Flowers, Jerusalem Cricket Bite, Nikon Hb-32 Hood, National Express Coventry,